Fraud occurs when the mark owner knowingly made a false representation to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) regarding a material fact, or else willfully withheld material information, and the USPTO would not have issued the registration but for its reliance on the false representation. Fraud in procuring or maintaining a trademark registration is a defense to trademark infringement, and can lead to the cancellation of the mark's federal registration (the mark owner retains common law rights). Additionally, under Lanham Act §38 a civil court may award damages to any person who has been damaged by the mark owner's fraud.